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Overview

This interactive chart shows the forms used to represent the vowels and diphthongs of Thai (excluding a small number of extremely rare forms). Click on any table cells to see an explanation of the form and some examples of words using that form.

The symbol is used to represent an initial consonant or consonant cluster; represents a final consonant. ◌ is a placeholder allowing tone marks &c. which could not normally be displayed without an accompanying consonant.

Some terms:

Long
This refers to the duration of the vowel or diphthong, being longer than the corresponding short vowel/diphthong, for example /aa/ and /ee/ vs. /a/ and /e/.
Short
Short refers to the duration of the vowel or diphthong, being shorter than the corresponding long vowel/diphthong, for example /a/ and /e/ vs. /aa/ and /ee/.
Open
The syllable doesn't have a final consonant.
Closed
The syllable has a final consonant.