Lesson 39

Miscellaneous Symbols , , ◌ฺ


The symbol is an iteration mark meaning that the previous word or phrase is to be repeated. In Thai it's known as ไม้ยมก /máyˑyaˑmók/. So, for example, บ่อย is read as บ่อย บ่อย /bɔ̀y bɔ̀y/. Here are some more examples:

ทุก/thúkˑthúk/every (DET)
เรื่อย/rʉ̂ayˑrʉ̂ay/slowly (ADV)
นั้น/nánˑnán/such (DET)
ค่อย/khɔ̂yˑkhɔ̂y/quietly (ADV)
ใกล้/klâyˑklây/repetitiously (ADV)
เร็ว/rewˑrew/fast (ADV)
น้อย/nɔ́ɔyˑnɔ́ɔy/a little bit (ADV)
ง่าย/ŋâayˑŋâay/be simple (V)
คล้าย/khláayˑkhláay/resemble (V)
ทั่ว/thûaˑthûa/general (ADJ)
นาน/naanˑnaan/rarely (ADV)
ช้า/cháaˑcháa/slowly (ADV)
เงียบ/ŋîapˑŋîap/quietly (ADV)
ใคร/khrayˑkhray/anyone (PRON)
เก่า/kàwˑkàw/old (ADJ)
ราว/raawˑraaw/around (ADV)
ที่/thîiˑthîi/right place (N)
คร่าว/khrâawˑkhrâaw/approximately (ADV)
ซ้ำ/sámˑsám/repeatedly (ADV)
จู่/cùuˑcùu/unexpectedly (ADV)
เสมอ/saˑmə̌əˑsaˑmə̌ə/always (ADV)
ตรง/troŋˑtroŋ/uprightly (ADV)


  1. is typically not used in poetry - repeated words are written out in full.
  2. is not used when the repeated words are different parts of speech. So, for example, คนนี้ is incorrect. The first คน is a noun, the second a classifier. This should be written คนคนนี้
  3. Officially, when writing there should always be a space before . There should also be a space after, unless is followed by a punctuation mark.

The symbol marks that a word or phrases is abbreviated. It's known as ไปยาลน้อย /payˑyaan nɔ́ɔy/ - literally "small omission".

กรุงเทพฯกรุงเทพมหานคร อมรรัตนโกสินทร์ มหินทรายุธยา มหาดิลกภพ นพรัตนราชธานีบูรีรมย์ อุดมราชนิเวศน์มหาสถาน อมรพิมานอวตารสถิต สักกะทัตติยวิษณุกรรมประสิทธิ์/kruŋˑthêep/Bangkok (N)
สหรัฐฯสหรัฐอเมริกา/saˑhaˑrát/United States of America (N)
นายกฯนายกรัฐมนตรี/naaˑyók/prime minister (N)
น้อมเกล้าฯน้อมเกล้าน้อมกระหม่อมถวาย/nɔ́ɔmˑklâw/to present (to the King) (V)
ทูลเกล้าฯทูลเกล้าทูลกระหม่อม/thuunˑklâw/respectfully (to the King) (ADJ)

There should be no space before .

ฯลฯ, known as ไปยาลใหญ่ /payˑyaan yày/ (large omission), is used like the English "etc." to indicate there are more items in a list, but they haven't been shown. It is pronounced /lá/.

When written ฯลฯ should be preceded and followed by a space.

The final character is ◌ฺ, known as พินทุ /phinˑ​thú/. It is not used in writing normal Thai, but is used in the pronunciation guides in Thai language dictionaries to indicate the initial consonant of a consonant cluster. For example, for the word กรด is given as being pronounced กฺรด, so we know it's /kròt/ - not, for example /kaˑrót/. Similarly, สปริง is pronounced สะปฺริง, so we know it's /saˑpriŋ/, not /saˑpaˑriŋ/.

◌ฺ is also used when writing Pali (the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism in Thailand) in Thai script. When writing Pali in Thai script an /a/ sound is inserted by default after each consonant when no written vowel is present. For example, นโม is pronounced /náˑmoo/. ◌ฺ is used to suppress the default /a/ sound, so มนฺตฺร is pronounced /manˑtrà/. (Without ◌ฺ it would be /máˑnáˑtàˑrá/).


Start with the loop, clockwise. Note that the written form of this character is different from the printed form. With most fonts the line ends by descending vertically, but in handwriting the line bends to the left.

Start with the loop, anticlockwise.